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机织物概述

机织物应用非常广泛,可用于衣着、装饰、卫生、工业、国防等各个领域。随着现代科学技术的进步,机织物在品种上将不断地创新,在用途上不断地扩大,在生产上也不断采用新工艺、新技术,未来的应用将更加广泛。广义上讲,由纱线按照一定的加工方法构成的片状物叫做织物。机织物是指由相互垂直排列的两个系统的纱线,在织机上按一定的规律交织而成的制品。机织物结构指经纬纱在织物中相互配合及交织的情况,即经纬纱在织物中所处的几何形态。在机织物中经纱和纬纱相互交错或彼此沉浮的规律叫做织物组织。种类繁多的织物组织构成了织物不同的花式和外观效果。

Woven fabrics Introduction

Woven fabric is widely used in clothing, decoration, health, industry, national defense and so on.With the progress of modern science and technology, the types and use of woven fabric are continuously  innovatedand expanded respectively. The new technologies are continuously  adoptedin its production. Its futureapplication will be more and more extensive.

In a broad sense, fabric is flakes that yarn was processed with a certain processing method and the woven fabric is the production made by the two perpendicular yarns of systems, which was weaved on the loom with a certain rules.The structure of woven fabric refers to the mutual coordinating and interweaving of warp and weft yarn in the fabric, the geometry of warp and weft yarn in the fabric .The rules that warp and weft yarn interlaced or ups and downs each other in fabric is called fabric weave. The wide variety of fabric weave formed the different figure and appearance of fabric .

机织物分类

随着纺织技术的发展,机织物组织结构的种类也越来越多。机织物中有三种基本组织:平纹组织(plain weave)、斜纹组织(twill weave)、缎纹组织(satin weave),称为三原组织,以三原组织为基础加以各种变化得到各种变化组织,此外还有联合组织以及小花纹组织等,这些组织统称为简单组织。复杂组织指的是经纬纱中,至少有一种是由两组或两组以上系统的纱线组成。根据其组织结构的不同,可分为二重组织、双层组织、毛巾组织、经纬起毛组织等。原组织为织物组织结构基本组织。 平纹组织为经、纬组织点一隔一排列而成。斜纹组织为经、纬组织点连续排列成斜线而成。缎纹组织为单独组织点均匀分布,互不连续。三原组织的组织图如图 1-1 所示,其中图 1-1(a)(b)(c)分别为  1/1平纹组织、2/1 斜纹组织、4/1 缎纹组织。

Woven fabrics Category

With the development of textile technology, the type of woven fabric structure is also increasing.There are three basic tissues in the woven fabric,the plain weave, the twill weave, and the satin weave, which are called Three-Elementary Weave(TEW).Based on the TEW with various changing can obtain various fancy weave.In addition, there are compound weave and huckaback weave and so on, which are called simple weaves .The complex weave refers to that in the warp and weft yarns, there must be at least one ,which is composed of two or more than two groups of system yarns.According to the difference of its organizational structure ,it can be classified into the backed weave, the double weave, the towels weave, the warp/weft burr weave, etc.

Elementary morphism weave is the basic weave of fabric structure. Plain weave is made of alternate arrangement in the warp and weft unit. Twill weave is that warp and weft unit are arranged in diagonal lines.Satin weave is that its separate weave point distributed evenly, discrete each other. The diagram of Three-Elementary Weave is shown in figure 1-1,figure 1-1 (a), (b), (c) is 1/1 plain weave, 2/1twill weave,4/1 satin weave respectively.

   

 (a)平纹组织图   (b)斜纹组织图     (c) 缎纹组织图

 (a)plain weave (b)twill weave (c) satin weave


1-1三种原组织机织物组织图

Figure 1-1Three kinds of elementary morphism weave fabric Chart

在三原组织的基础上,根据三原组织结构特点,加以变化得到变化组织。平纹变化组织是在平纹组织的经向或纬向或经纬向同时延伸增加组织点所得到的组织。以斜纹组织为基础变化则产生斜纹变化组织。 以缎纹组织为基础,根据缎纹组织结构特点加以变化,得到变化缎纹组织变化组织(organizational changes)仍具有基础组织特征,组织图如图 1-2 所示。

Based on Three-Elementary, according to its structural characteristics can get fancy weaves with some changes.Plain fancy weaves is the warp or weft or warp and weft of plain weave stretch to increase weave point at the same time.Changes based on the twill weave will get twill fancy weaves.Changes based on the satin weave, according to its structural characteristics can get satin fancy weaves.Fancy weaves still has the characteristics of basic weave, weave diagram is shown as figure 1-2

     

(a)变化平纹组织图   (b)变化斜纹组织图     (c)变化缎纹组织图

(a)plain fancy weaves       (b)twill fancy weaves   (c)twill fancy weaves

1-2变化组织组织图

Figure 1-2 fancy weaves diagram

联合组织是由两种及两种以上的原组织或变化组织、 用各种不同的方法联合而成的组织,在织物表面可呈现几何图案或小花纹。条纹组织是较为常见的一种联合组织, 运用两种或几种原组织或变化组织并列配置,使织物表面形成条纹或格子花纹的组织。如图 1-3 所示为条纹织物的组织图。其中图 1-3(a)为缎纹和平纹交叉排列组合而成,而图 1-3(b)由斜纹和斜纹交叉排列组合而成。

Compound weave is the joint of two or more than two elementary morphism weave or fancy weaves with various of different methods, presenting geometric patterns or small decorative pattern on its fabric surface.Striped weave is a common compound weave, using two or more organizations or fancy weaves to deploy in parallel,forming streaks or checked in the fabric surface.The striped weave diagram is shown in figure 1-3.Figure 1-3(a) is the satin and plain cross combination,while figure 1-3 (b) is twill and twill cross combination.

   

(a)条纹组织图 1 (b)条纹组织图2

(a) striped weave diagram 1  (b) striped weave diagram 2

1-3条纹组织组织图

Figure 1-3 striped weave diagram

数据库的描述:

1平纹,缎纹,斜纹以及变化组织:

  数据库中的平纹组织、缎纹组织、斜纹组织和变化组织的图片集,对应于这些机织物自动识别方法中的每一过程。首先提取图像的亮度信息,经过中值滤波和形态学腐蚀等预处理,采用灰度投影矫正纱线偏斜完成组织点的分割。基于梯度方向信息对组织点进行特征提取,通过模糊 C 均值聚类算法初步分类和识别组织点。最后根据机织物组织结构周期性,统计识别结果校正误识别点,得到正确组织结构图。

2 条纹织物:

  条纹组织是较为常见的一种联合组织,它由两种及两种以上的原组织或变化组织交叉排列而成。由于一些条纹织物是由具有相同结构参数但纹理方向不同的组织交叉排列而成,具有旋转不变性的纹理特征提取方法不适合解决此类问题。此外扫描窗口的选择直接影响着纹理特征的提取。数据库中的条纹组织图是通过扫描窗口的自动选取方法,首先利用水平和垂直方向灰度投影分割纱线,以两根纱线为所占区域大小为窗口、单根纱线的宽度为步长对图像进行扫描,并基于灰度共生矩阵(Gray Level Co-occurrence MatricesGLCM)对每个窗口提取特征,计算相邻窗口之间的相关系数,通过分析相关系数曲线完成条纹织物分割,最后基于梯度直方图的方法识别织物组织结构。

Database Description:

1. plain, satin, twill and fancy weaves:

The pictures of plain weave, satin weave , twill weave and fancy weaves in the databasecorrespond to each process of the woven fabric automatic identification method. Firstly, extract the brightness information of the image, pretreat with median filtering and morphological corrosion and so on and complete weave point segmentation using gray projection correction yarn deflection.Secondly, extract features of weave point based on the gradient direction information and preliminary classify and identify the weave point with fuzzy c means clustering algorithm. In the end, statistics the recognized results and correct the error weave point according to the periodicity of the structure of woven fabric, getting the correct chart of organizational structure .

2.striped fabric:

Striped weave is a common compound weave, which was crossly arranged by two or more then two original organizations or changed weaves. Because of cross arranging of the weave with same parameters but different grain direction, the method of rotation invariance of texture feature extraction is not suitable for solving such problems.In addition, the selection of scan window directly affects the extraction of texture feature .The acquisition of striped weave chart in the database is to scan the window with a automatic selection method.Firstly, segment the yarn with gray-level projection of horizontal and vertical direction, scan the image with through the window size of the area of two yarns the ,the step width of a single yarn, extract features of every window based on Gray Level co-occurrence Matrix(Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices, GLCM) and calculate the correlation coefficient between adjacent windows.Then complete the segmentation of stripes weave through the analysis of correlation coefficient curve.Finally, recognize the fabric structure based on the method of gradient histogram.